Тексты к экзамену по английскому | ЭСЭСА | Козлова Н.И.

Автор: admin от 16-07-2012, 13:16 | Категория: «Английский»

Преподаватель: Козлова Н.И..

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Сокращенные тексты из учебников Труханова и Кущ

1. WATCH MAINTENANCE
Service life and reliability of the electrical equipment largely depend on its proper operation and maintenance.
Watch maintenance ensures electric machines readiness for operation, the change of their mode of operation as well as starting and shut-down operations supervision.
Normal operation of electric machines includes: correspondence of the operating parameters to the rated ones (voltage, current, current' frequency, speed of rotation and number of startings); the degree of heating of separate machine parts; the condition of the insulation resistance the proper operation of the protective and signalling equipment, the сом rect instrument readings, etc.
After repairs or long inaction electric machines should be tested thoroughly. Trial start is usually performed under idling conditions. Then the load is gradually upped to the rated one.
When the generator runs under nominal load, the personnel of watch should make sure that the switch apparatuses are in good working order, there is no inadmissible sparking on the commutator and rings, the voltage regulators are operating properly, the frequency is normal. When the generators are working in parallel, watch personnel should check the operation of both synchronizing apparatuses and electric mea«! suring devices. They should observe that the voltage and frequency are
of rated values, and that the load between generators, working in parallel, is distributed properly; they should also check the isolation resistance condition.
While working with shaft generators, the watch personnel should observe the generator drive condition and fluctuations in voltage and frequency.
During preparation of electric motors for operation, the personnel of watch should perform superficial examination of both the electric motor and the driving mechanism (electric drive), check the position of the starters, the condition of the electromagnetic and mechanical brakes, and measure the insulation resistance of the electric drive and the equipment together with the feeding cables.
In case the motor doesn't reach the required frequency, or consumes high-amperage current, or tends to overspeed, it should be immediately stopped and started only after the fault is remedied.
While examining the electric drives the watch personnel should check that the switch apparatuses operate properly, and that there is no sparking on the electric motors rings and commutators; examine electric machines for local overheating; test the condition of the signaling system and measuring devices.

2. ELECTRICAL MAINTENANCE
Electrical maintenance is to be performed in accordance with Regulation on Operation and Maintenance of Merchant Marine and guided by a maintenance schedule.
The EE is to make up a standard maintenance schedule which contains the following data: 1) insulation resistance, 2) heating, 3) moistening, 4) brush sparking, 5) vibration, 6) noise, 7) gaps in sleeve bearings, 8) axis runs of rotor shafts, 9) air- gaps of interiron space
It also includes the state of 10) commutators (slip- rings), 11) brushes, 11) bearings, 13) bandages, 14) bracings etc.
In order to keep electric machines in operating condition preventive maintenance is provided. There are three basic ways of preventive maintenance with which:
1) electric machines remain assembled; 2)electric machines are partially disassembled; 3)electric machines are completely disassembled.
Preventive maintenance of electric machines which remain assembled or are partially disassembled may be executed either while the ship is running or staying in a scheduled port. The electric drives involved in maintenance while the ship is running are those of cargo-lifting mechanisms, which possess a standby.
When the machine remains assembled assembled it must be cleaned in available places. The loosened attachments are tightened, the brushes are replaced, the brushgear is partially adjusted, the commutator and slip-rings are cleaned, the lubrication of bearings is substituted, the insulation resistance is measured.
Once the fault cannot be remedied with a machine which remains assembled, the latter is partially or completely disassembled. Minor repair are carried out by a ship's crew. Major damages are repaired in electric workshops of ship-repairing factories.

2. ТЕХНИЧЕСКОЕ ОБСЛУЖИВАНИЕ ЭЛЕКТРООБОРУДОВАНИЯ
Техническое обслуживание электрооборудования должно быть выполнено в соответствии с Положением о эксплуатации и техническому обслуживанию морского флота и руководством график технического обслуживания.
Инженер-электрик должен составлять стандартный график обслуживания, которая содержит следующие данные: 1) изоляция ре сопротивление, 2) отопление, 3), увлажнение, 4) кисти искрения, 5) вибрация, 6) шума, 7) пробелы в рукаве подшипники, 8) оси пробеги валов, 9) воздушные зазоры в interiron пространство
Она также включает в себя состояние 10) коммутаторы (контактные кольца), 11), щетки, 11), подшипники, 13), бинты, 14), распорки и т.д.
Дня того, чтобы поддерживать электрические машины в рабочем состояние профилактической обслуживание предоставляется. Есть три основных способа профилактики, с которыми:
1) электрических машин остается в собранном виде;
2) электрических машин, частично разобраны;
3) электрические машины полностью разобран.
Профилактическое обслуживание электрических машин, которые остаются собранном или частично разобранном может быть выполнен либо в то время как корабль под управлением или остаться в запланированном порту. Электроприводов, участвующих в обслуживании в то время как корабль под управлением являются погрузочно-подъемных механизмов, которые обладают в режиме ожидания.
Если аппарат не собрал собрал он должен быть очищен в доступных местах. Ослабить вложения затягиваются, щетки заменены, brushgear частично скорректированы, коммутатор и контактных колец очищают, смазка подшипников заменить, сопротивление изоляции измеряется.
Как только неисправность не может быть исправлено с помощью машины, которая остается собранный, последняя частично или полностью разобран. Мелкий ремонт осуществляется экипажем судна. Основные повреждения устраняются в электрических мастерских судоремонт заводы.

3. TESTING ELECTRIC MACHINES FOR DEFECTS
Electric machines are tested for defects before repairs. The EE must fill a detailed repair request form and make up a repair list. The repair list contains a machine registration certificate, detective defects, the list of materials, spare and component parts and wiring accessories. The type of repair is also identified in the repair list either current (running) or capital (overhaul).
Current repair of a D.C. machine can be performed in two ways - either the machine poles are removed or not removed.
When the machine poles are not removed, the current repairs involves the following procedures:
1. Disassembling a machine; 7. Drying, enamelling and redrying windings;
2. Cleaning a machine; 8. Assembling a machine, adjusting and testing
3. Blowing through and washing it on a test bed;
4. Detecting and eliminating minor defects; 9. Mounting a machine on a machine bearer
5. Replacing bearings; and testing it for operation
6. Slotting and grinding a commutator;
When the machine poles are removed, the current repair additionally provides the following:
1. Removing the main and commutating poles with coils;
2. Disassembling, cleaning and washing poles;
3. Drying and impregnating coils with varnish;
4. Checking insulation resistance of coils;
5. Assembling, mounting and testing pole coils for polarity.

3. ИСПЫТАНИЯ ЭЛЕКТРИЧЕСКИХ МАШИН НА ДЕФЕКТЫ
Электрические машины проверяются на дефекты перед ремонтом. Электромеханик должен заполнить подробную форму запроса ремонта и составить список ремонта. Ремонтная ведомость содержит сертификат регистрации машины, обнаруж дефекты, перечень материалов, запасных и комплектующих частей и соединительных проводов. Тип ремонта также определяется в ремонт ной ведомости или текущий или капитальный.
Текущий ремонт машины постоянного тока может быть выполнен двумя способами - либо полюса машины удалены или не удалены.
Когда полюса машины не удаляются, текущий ремонт включ следующие процедуры:
1. Разборка машин; 6. Продораживание и шлифовальные
коммутатора;
2. Очистка машины;
7. Сушка, эмалировка и пересушка обмотки;
3. Продувка и промывка
8. Сборка машины, настройка и тестирование на
4. Выявление и устранение мелких дефектов; испытательном стенде;
5. Замена подшипников; 9 монтаж машины на стенд и тестирование ее
работы.
Когда полюса машины удаляются, то текущий ремонт дополнительно обеспечивает:
1. Удаление основного и коммутации полюсов с 4. Проверка сопротивления изоляции обмоток; катушками;
5. Сборка, монтаж и тестирование полюсных
2. Разборка, чистка и мойка полюсов; катушек на полярность.
3. Сушки и пропитки катушки лаком;

4. CAPITAL REPAIR OF D.C. AND A.C. MACHINES
Capital repair of electric machines is carried out in electrical workshops of ship-repairing factories.
Capital repair of a D.C. machine is predominantly performed with the following procedures:
1. Disassembling a machine with removing its armature, poles with coils, bearings;
2. Complete or partial rewinding of windings with replacing wedges and slot insulation;
3. Impregnating a winding with varnish, drying, enamelling and re-drying it;
4. Disassembling and removing the commutator with replacing micanite gaskets between commutator plates and cone micanite insulation;
5. Assembling a commutator on a shaft by a pressed fit, turning it on a lathe, slotting, grinding and polishing it;
6. Replacing armature bandages and performing static balance;
7. Rewinding a half of both the main and commutating poles, repairing the others, drying, impregnating them with varnish, drying them and enamelling pole coils;
8. Mechanical repair of a brush-rocker and brush-holders as well as restoring galvanic coating on the parts;
9. Assembling a machine, grinding its brushes on a commutator, checking gaps;
10. Adjusting, testing a machine on a test-bed, mounting it on its bearer and testing for operation.
Capital repair of an a.c. machine includes partial or complete rewinding of both the stator and the rotor. Damages in a cage motor those of its legs and end rings - are corrected as well. Generator exciters are also placed under repair and the latter is carried out in much the same way as that of a D.C. machine.

5. POWER CAM CONTROLLERS
The power cam controllers are self-contained unitized devices which consist of cam assemblies, no-voltage protection, overload protection and, sometimes, one or two contactors and a relay.
The power cam controllers are widely used for controlling a-c motors of deck machinery.
The PCC are simple construction, reliable in operation and have small dimensions.
The power cam controllers of the KB series have watertight construction and are designed for installation on weather decks.
The power cam controllers are designed for vertical mounting on weather decks or on the machinery. If controllers have no contactors they may be mounted mounted horizontally with the cover upward.
The use of the PCC in the electric drives of the deck machinery is restricted to motor ratings of 20 to 25 kW. It dependes on the operating frequency.
The PCC are widely used for anchor-handling, mooring and similar equipment with rating of up to 20 kW.
The choice of the power cam controllers for cargo hoisting gear must take into account the required wear resistance of the controller.

6. ALARM MEASURING SYSTEM
AMS are designed for centralized supervision of processes on board ships.
Such systems meet special requirements in marine applications.
AMS comprises a limited number of standard modules with data logging and alarm print-out functions.
The signals from analog and digital transducers are processed in the system and the values of temperatures, pressures, levels, etc are represented on a digital display.
AMS posses the following advantages:
All transducer signals are individually processed
Data for each channel, time delay, alarm group,, scale and number of decimals, are set by programming on each circuit board.
The system layout can be modified by the customer.
Each channel can be equipped with separate lamps for alarm indication on mimic diagrams and analog instruments, for continuous presentation of the measured values.

7. POWER PLANT CONTROL SYSTEM
The system comprises the following units: basic unit, synchronizing and load sharing unit, additional monitoring unit, central units, relay unit, transformer unit, relay unit for controlled loads.
The electronic units consist of identical boxes furnished with different electronic boards and fronts. The boxes are made of sheet steel and provided with ventilation holes. A printed circuit board, the “mother board", constitutes the internal wiring and is connected to the terminal board by a flexible ribbon cable. Together, these two boards form the rear of the box. Some programming is performed by jumpers on the mother board. The terminal board has two rows each with 33 terminals for, external connections.
The electronic boards are inserted from the front of the box. All indicating lamps and push-buttons are mounted on the boards and the front plate contains corresponding lamp glasses with engraved text.
The maximum number of different electronic boards is seven and every board has a distinct limitation of functions. This implies that any faults can easily be corrected and few spare parts are required.
The relay and transformer units are built up in 19 inch standard racks and function as interface and output stages between the electronics and the peripheral equipment.
The basic units, the additional monitoring units and the central unit shall be applied from a 24 V.battery, while the synchronizing and load sharing units are to be supplied from the generators via the transformer units.
The system can be adapted to different types of engines, generators and other relevant equipment.
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