Автор: Alfa Laval.
Тип документа: Справочник | pdf.
Популярность: 0.07 %
Размер файла: 6 Mb.
Год издания: 2001.
The information provided in this handbook is given in good faith, but Alfa Laval is not able to accept any responsibility for the accuracy of its content, or any consequences that may arise from the use of the information supplied or materials described.
Alfa Laval is an acknowledged market leader in pumping technology, supplying Centrifugal and Positive Displacement Pumps world-wide to various key application areas such as food, brewery and pharmaceutical.
There are many different definitions of this but at Alfa Laval we believe this is best described as:
‘A machine used for the purpose of transferring quantities of fluids and/or gases, from one place to another’.
This is illustrated below transferring fluid from tank A to spray nozzles B.
This pump handbook has been produced to support pump users at all levels, providing an invaluable reference tool. The handbook includes all the necessary information for the correct selection and successful application of the Alfa Laval ranges of Centrifugal, Liquid Ring and Rotary Lobe Pumps. The handbook is divided into fifteen main sections, which are as follows:
2 Terminology and Theory
3 Pump Selection
4 Pump Description
5 Pump Materials of Construction
6 Pump Sealing
7 Pump Sizing
8 Pump Specification Options
10 Cleaning Guidelines
11 Compliance with International Standards and Guidelines
12 Installation Guide
14 Technical Data
15 Glossary of Terms
Section 1: Introduction Introduction of the Pump Handbook.
1.1 What is a Pump?
Section 2: Terminology and Theory Explanation of the terminology and theory of pumping applications, including rheology, flow characteristics, pressure and NPSH.
2.1 Product/Fluid Data
2.1.4 Specific Weight
2.1.5 Specific Gravity
2.1.7 Flow Characteristics
2.1.8 Vapour Pressure
2.1.9 Fluids Containing Solids
2.2 Performance Data
2.2.1 Capacity (Flow Rate)
2.2.4 Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH)
2.2.5 Pressure ‘Shocks’ (Water Hammer)
Section 3: Pump Selection Overview of the pump ranges currently available from Alfa Laval and which particular pumps to apply within various application areas.
3.1 General Applications Guide
3.2 Pumps for Sanitary Applications
3.3 PumpCAS Selection and Configuration Tool
Section 4: Pump Description
Description of Alfa Laval pump ranges including design,
principle of operation and pump model types.
4.1 Centrifugal Pumps
4.1.2 Principle of Operation
4.1.4 Pump Range
4.2 Liquid Ring Pumps
4.2.2 Principle of Operation
4.2.4 Pump Range
4.3 Rotary Lobe Pumps
4.3.2 Principle of Operation
4.3.3 Pump Range
Section 5: Pump Materials of Construction Description of the materials, both metallic and elastomeric, that are used in the construction of Alfa Laval pump ranges.
5.1 Main Components
5.2 Steel Surfaces
Section 6: Pump Sealing
Explanation of pump sealing principles with illustrations of the different sealing arrangements used on Alfa Laval pump ranges. A general seal selection guide is included, together with various operating parameters.
6.1 Mechanical Seals - General
6.2 Mechanical Seal Types
in Alfa Laval Pump Ranges
6.3 Other Sealing Options (Rotary Lobe Pumps only)
Section 7: Pump Sizing
How to size an Alfa Laval pump from product/fluid and performance data given, supported by relevant calculations and worked examples with a simple step by step approach
7.1 General Information Required
7.2.1 Hydraulic Power
7.2.2 Required Power
7.3 Centrifugal and Liquid Ring Pumps
7.3.1 Flow Curve
7.3.2 Flow Control
7.3.3 Alternative Pump Installations
7.4 Worked Examples
of Centrifugal Pump Sizing (Metric Units)
7.4.1 Example 1
7.4.2 Example 2
7.5 Worked Examples
of Centrifugal Pump Sizing (US Units)
7.5.1 Example 1
7.5.2 Example 2
7.6 Rotary Lobe Pumps
7.6.2 Initial Suction Line Sizing
7.6.3 Performance Curve
7.6.4 Pumps fitted with Bi-lobe Rotors (Stainless Steel)
7.6.5 Pumps fitted with Bi-lobe Rotors (Non Galling Alloy)
7.6.6 Pumps fitted with Tri-lobe Rubber Covered Rotors
7.6.7 Pumps with Electropolished Surface Finish
7.6.8 Guidelines for Solids Handling
7.6.9 Guidelines for Pumping Shear Sensitive Media
7.7 Worked Examples of
Rotary Lobe Pump Sizing (Metric Units)
7.8 Worked Examples of
Rotary Lobe Pump Sizing (US Units)
Section 8: Pump Specifications Options Description of the various specification options available for the Alfa Laval pump ranges, such as port connections heating/cooling jackets, pressure relief valves and other ancillaries.
8.1 Centrifugal and Liquid Ring Pumps
8.1.1 Port Connections
8.1.2 Heating/Cooling Jackets
8.1.3 Pump Casing with Drain
8.1.4 Increased Impeller Gap
8.1.5 Pump Inlet Inducer
8.2 Rotary Lobe Pumps
8.2.1 Rotor Form
8.2.3 Port Connections
8.2.4 Rectangular Inlets
8.2.5 Heating/Cooling Jackets and Saddles
8.2.6 Pump Overload Protection
Section 9: Motors
Description of electric motors, including information on m< protection, methods of starting, motors for hazardous environments and speed control.
9.1 Output Power
9.2 Rated Speed
9.5 Insulation and Thermal Rating
9.7 Methods of Starting
9.8 Motors for Hazardous Environments
9.9 Energy Efficient Motors
9.10 Speed Control
9.11 Changing Motor Nameplates
- Centrifugal and Liquid Ring Pumps only
Section 10: Cleaning Guidelines Advises cleaning guidelines for use in processes utilising CIP (Clean In Place) systems. Interpretations of cleanliness are given and explanations of the cleaning cycle.
Section 11: Compliance with International Standards and Guidelines
Description of the international standards and guidelines applicable to Alfa Laval pump ranges.
Section 12: Installation Guide Advises guidelines relating to pump installation, system design and pipework layout.
12.1.1 System Design
12.1.4 Electrical Supply
12.2 Flow Direction
12.2.1 Centrifugal Pumps
12.2.2 Rotary Lobe Pumps
12.3 Baseplates Foundation (Rotary Lobe Pumps only)
12.4 Coupling Alignment (Rotary Lobe Pumps only)
12.5 Special Considerations for Liquid Ring Pumps
Section 13: Troubleshooting
Advises possible causes and solutions to most common
problems found in pump installation and operation.
13.2 Common Problems
13.2.1 Loss of Flow
13.2.2 Loss of Suction
13.2.3 Low Discharge Pressure
13.2.4 Excessive Noise or Vibration
13.2.5 Excessive Power
13.2.6 Rapid Pump Wear
13.2.7 Seal Leakage
13.3 Problem Solving Table
Section 14: Technical Data
Summary of the nomenclature and formulas used in this handbook. Various conversion tables and charts are also shown.
14.3 Conversion Tables
14.3.3 Volumetric Capacity
14.3.4 Mass Capacity
14.3.10 Viscosity Conversion Table
14.3.11 Temperature Conversion Table
14.4 Water Vapour Pressure Table
14.5 Pressure Drop Curve for 100 m ISO/DIN Tube
14.6 Velocity (m/s) in ISO and DIN Tubes at various Capacities
14.7 Equivalent Tube Length Table
14.7.1 ISO Tube Metric
14.7.2 ISO Tube Feet
14.7.3 DIN Tube Metric
14.7.4 DIN Tube Feet
14.8 Moody Diagram
14.9 Initial Suction Line Sizing
14.10 Elastomer Compatibility Guide
14.11 Changing Motor Name Plates
Section 15: Glossary of Terms
Explains the various terms found in this handbook.
Pump types generally fall into two main categories - Rotodynamic and Positive Displacement, of which there are many forms.
The Rotodynamic pump transfers rotating mechanical energy into kinetic energy in the form of fluid velocity and pressure. The Centrifugal and Liquid Ring pumps are types of rotodynamic pump, which utilise centrifugal force to transfer the fluid being pumped.
The Rotary Lobe pump is a type of positive displacement pump, which directly displaces the pumped fluid from pump inlet to outlet in discrete volumes.